FODMAP is a term derived from Fermentable, Oligo-, Di-, Mono-saccharides And Polyols, which are forms of carbohydrates which we intake through various foods in our daily diets. A FODMAP diet can be categorised as Low FODMAP & High FODMAP diet. A Low FODMAP diet can reduce the IBS (Irritable Bowel Syndrome) symptoms by 50%, which can be a natural way of treatment while we should avoid High FODMAP diet or we can just reduce it to a minimum.
Research have shown that some of the carbohydrates can cause irritation to the bowels and thereby contributing to the symptoms. Hence, Low FODMAP diet is always recommended over High FODMAP diet. Some of the replacement you should try in your diet are as follows:
Dairy Products: High Lactose foods are also high in FODMAP which should be avoided when you are following a low FODMAP diet. These high lactose foods includes Milk, Yogurt, Cottage Cheese and others, which can be replaced dairy products which are lower in lactose such as Mozzarella, Cheddar & Feta cheese or Lactose-free milk.
Fruits: Fructose is a type of sugar which is a major components in fruits. Fruits having high content of Fructose are not considered as a part of Low FODMAP diet and hence should be avoided by people suffering from IBS. Foods like apples, watermelon, cherries, mango, etc have high fructose content & thereby should be avoided. While some of the fruits having low fructose contents are Blueberries, Kiwi, Orange, Grapes which can be incorporated with correct amount while going for a low FODMAP diet.
Vegetables : Fructan a substance similar to Fructose, can be found in many vegetables & grains are considered to be a part of high FODMAP and thus should be avoided. Foods that are high in Fructan and should be avoided are Garlic, Onion, Peas, Nuts, Legumes, Scallions & some grains. But before you completely switch off to salads and make your life miserable, there are some low Fructan foods which can be enjoyed by veggies are Eggplant, Sweet Potato, Spinach, Tomatoes & Cucumbers.
Grains: Pasta has always been a delicious food but it comes with high carbohydrates along with high levels of Fructan. We already discussed how high content of Fructan will lead to high FODMAP diet. Hence, Pasta along with other grains like wheat and rye is a complete no-go when you are following a low FODMAP diet. Gluten-free bread, Millet bread, Rice & Spelt bread can be a good replacement.
Beans: Legumes like kidney beans, soy beans, black beans, split peas, garbanzo beans, navy beans are considered a high FODMAP food because of their high fructan content. Beans have been great for heart but as they are high in FODMAP these can be avoided. So you can swap the above mentioned beans with canned lentils which can be more comfortable.